Last December (’05), physicists held the 23rd Solvay Conference in Brussels, Belgium. One of the many issues covered at the conference was that the subject matter of string theory. This concept combines the apparently irreconcilable domain of relativity and quantum physics. David Gross a Nobel Laureate made some startling statements about the state of mathematics including:”We do not know what we are speaking about” whilst discussing string theory in addition to The state of physics today is like it had been when we were mystified by radioactivity.
The Nobel Laureate is a research in this field having earned a prize for work and he indicated that what is happening today is quite much like what occurred at the 1911 Solvay assembly. Back then, radioactivity had lately been found and power conservation had been under attack because of its own discovery. Quantum theory would be necessary to address these issues. Gross further remarked that in 1911″They were missing something absolutely fundamental,” as well as”we are missing perhaps something as deep as they were back then.”
Coming from a scientist with establishment credentials that is a damning statement about the state of existing theoretical models and most especially string theory. This model is a means in which physicists replace the contaminants of particle physics. These objects were first discovered in 1968 through the penetration and work of Gabriele Veneziano who had been trying to comprehend that the strong nuclear force.
Veneziano discovered a similarity between the Euler Beta Function, named for the famous mathematician Leonhard Euler, and the powerful force whilst meditating on the powerful force. Implementing the Beta Function to the powerful force he was able to confirm a direct correlation between the two. Interestingly enough, no one knew why Euler’s Beta functioned by mapping the strong nuclear power data. A suggested solution for this problem would adhere to later.
Almost two years later (1970), both the scientists Nambu, Nielsen and Susskind provided a mathematical description that explained the physical phenomena of the Euler’s Beta served as a graphical outline to its strong nuclear power. By simulating the nuclear forces as a dimensional strings they were able to demonstrate why it seemed to work so well. But, several inconsistencies were immediately seen on the horizon. The concept had attached to it several implications which were in breach of empirical investigations. In other words, the new concept was not backed up by regular experimentation.
Needless to say, physicists intimate fascination with string theory ended almost as quickly as it had begun only to be resuscitated a few years later by another’discovery’ The employee of the sweet dreams of contemporary physicists’ salvation has been called the graviton. This elementary particle communicates gravitational forces.
The graviton is of course a’hypothetical’ particle which appears in what are called quantum gravity systems. Alas, the graviton has never ever been discovered; it is as previously indicated a’mythical’ particle which fills the mind of the theorist with dreams of Nobel Prizes that were golden and his or her name to the periodic table of elements.
But back to the historic record. Back in 1974, the scientists Scherk Schwarz and Yoneya reexamined strings so that the textures or patterns of strings and their vibrational properties were connected to the aforementioned’graviton.’ As a result of these investigations was born what is now called’bosonic string theory’ that would be the’in fashion’ version of this concept. Having both closed and open strings as well as essential issues that gave rise to instabilities that are unforeseen.
These problematical instabilities leading to a lot of difficulties which render the believing as we were when we started this discussion. Of course this all started from gravitons which arise from different notions equally inexplicable and overburdened and so forth. Thus was born string theory that was hoped would provide a comprehensive picture of the universe’s simple principles.
Scientists had thought that once the consequences of particle physics were left behind from the adoption of this string theory, that a grand unified theory of what would be a readily ascertainable aim. What they couldn’t anticipate is that the concept that they hoped would produce a theory of what would render them frustrated and more confused than they were before they departed from particle physics.
The final result of string theory is that we so are becoming increasingly more confused and know less and less. Obviously, the argument can be made whereby we’ll tweak the model to a eventual perfecting of their understanding of 31, that further investigations will yield more relevant data. Or perhaps’We do not know what we are speaking about.’