The Age of biotechnology arrives with somatostatin – a human growth hormone-releasing inhibitory variable, the very first human protein manufactured in bacteria by Genentech, Inc.. A synthetic receptor has been used to replicate a protein for the very first time.
Genentech, Inc. and The City of Hope National Medical Center announce the powerful laboratory creation of human insulin using recombinant DNA technology. Hutchinson and Edgell reveal it’s possible to introduce mutations.
Sir Walter Bodmer indicates a way of using DNA technology to find gene markers to show specific disorders and their carriers . John Baxter reports cloning the gene for human growth hormone.
The prokaryote model, E. coli, is used to produce insulin and other medicine, in human kind. Researchers successfully present a human gene – based one which codes for the protein interferon- into a bacterium. The U.S. patent for gene cloning is given to Cohen and Boyer.
Scientists at Ohio University create the first transgenic animals by transferring genes into mice from different animals. The very first gene-synthesizing machines are developed. Chinese scientists clone a carp fish.
Genentech, Inc. receives approval by the Food and Drug Administration to promote genetically engineered human insulin. Applied Biosystems, Inc. presents the first commercial gas phase protein sequencer.
Kary B Mullis invents the polymerase chain reaction. The very first artificial chromosome is included, along with the genetic markers for specific inherited diseases are found.
Chiron Corp. acknowledges the initial cloning and sequencing of the whole human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome. Alec Jeffreys presents technique for DNA fingerprinting to identify people. The first genetically engineered vaccine is manufactured.
Cetus Corporation’s develops GeneAmp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, which could create billions of copies of a more targeted gene sequence in only hours. Scientists find a chemical marker for cystic fibrosis on chromosome number 7.
The first genetically engineered vaccine – Chiron’s Recombivax HB – is approved for the prevention of hepatitis B. A regiment of technicians and scientists at Caltech and Applied Biosystems, Inc. invented the automated DNA fluorescence sequencer.
The outside evaluations on a genetically engineered bacterium are allowed. Formation that is frost is inhibited by it on plants. Genentech’s tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), sold as Activase, is approved as a treatment for heart attacks.
Harvard molecular geneticists Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart granted the first patent for a genetically modified animal
UC Davis scientists develop a recombinant vaccine against the rinderpest virus. The human genome project is set up, a collaboration between scientists from countries around the world to work outside the whole of the genetic code.
The initial gene therapy occurs, on a four-year-old woman with an immune-system disorder. The human genome project is launched.
Mary-Claire King, at the University of California, Berkeley, finds evidence that a gene on chromosome 17 induces the inherited form of breast cancer and also raises the chance of ovarian cancer. The transgenic sheep is born.
The liver xenotransplant from 1 type of animal to another is carried out successfully. Chiron’s Proleukin is approved for treating renal cell cancer.
The FDA declares that genetically engineered foods are”not inherently dangerous” and don’t need special regulation. Chiron’s Betaseron is approved as the first treatment for multiple sclerosis in 20 decades.
The Flavr Savr tomato, the first genetically engineered food item, gained FDA approval. The first breast cancer gene is located. Genentech’s Nutropin is approved for treating growth hormone deficiency.
Researchers at Duke University Medical Center transplanted hearts from genetically modified pigs demonstrating that cross-species operations are possible. The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae is the first living organism on the planet to have its genome sequenced.
Biogen’s Avonex is approved for treating multiple sclerosis. The discovery of a gene associated with Parkinson’s disease provides an important avenue of research into the cause and potential treatment of this debilitating neurological ailment.
Researchers at Scotland’s Roslin Institute report they’ve cloned a sheep–called by the cell of an adult ewe. The earliest antibody-based therapy for cancer, Rituxan is approved by the FDA.
The very first complete animal genome the C.elegans pig is sequenced. James Thomson at Wisconsin and John Gearhart in Baltimore each develop a technique for culturing embryonic stem cells.
A medical diagnostic evaluation will for the very first time allow rapid identification of BSE/CJD a rare but catastrophic kind of disease transmitted from cattle to humans.
“Golden Rice,” modified to make vitamin A. Cloned pigs are created for the very first time in work done by Alan Coleman and his staff at PPL, the Edinburgh-based company responsible for Dolly the sheep.
The sequence of the genome is printed in Science and Nature, which makes it feasible for researchers all over the world to begin developing treatments for illness.
Researchers sequence the DNA of rice, and it is the very first crop to have its genome decoded.
The sequencing of the human genome is completed.